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Psychological distress screener for risk of future mental sickness absence in non-sicklisted employees

Date

Source

28.05.2016

van Hoffen, M. F. A., Twisk, J. W. R., Heymans, M. W., de Br...


Background: Recently, a three-item screener, derived from the 16-item distress scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Checklist (4DSQ), was used to measure psychological distress in sicklisted employees. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of the 16-item distress scale and three-item distress screener to identify non-sicklisted employees at risk of sickness absence (SA) due to mental disorders. Methods: Prospective cohort study including 4877 employees working in distribution and transport. The 4DSQ distress scale was distributed at baseline in November 2010. SA diagnosed within the International Classification of Diseases -10 chapter F was defined as mental SA and retrieved from an occupational health register during 2-year follow-up. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to discriminate between workers with (‘cases’) and without (‘non-cases’) mental SA during follow-up. Results: A total of 2782 employees (57%) were included in complete cases analysis; 73 employees had mental SA during 2-year follow-up. Discrimination between cases and non-cases was similar for the 16-item distress scale (AUC = 0.721; 95% CI, 0.622–0.823) and the three-item screener (AUC = 0.715; 95% CI, 0.615–0.815). Conclusion: Healthcare providers could use the three-item distress screener to identify non-sicklisted employees at risk of future mental SA.


What is generated and what is used: a description of public health research output and citation

Date

Source

28.05.2016

Wolfenden, L., Milat, A. J., Lecathelinais, C., Sanson-Fishe...


The aim of this short report was to describe the output and citation rates of public health. Data-based publications and literature reviews from the year 2008, and their 5-year citation rates were extracted from 10 randomly selected public health journals. In total, 86.2% of publications were descriptive/epidemiological studies, 56.8% used cross-sectional (56.8%) designs and 77.8% were classified as research translation stage 2. Reviews and publications describing randomized controlled trials were the most highly cited, but were infrequently published. Strategies to address the discordance between public health research output and research citation may improve the impact of public health research.


Inevitable? Doping attitudes among Berliners in 2011: the role of socialist state socialisation and athlete experience

Date

Source

28.05.2016

Wagner, G. G., Ziebarth, N. R.


To design effective and commonly accepted public health policies against performance-enhancing drugs (PED), it is important to understand general population attitudes. This article elicits PED attitudes in the Berlin population and compares response rates of former athletes (N = 496) with those of non-athletes (N = 1686). In addition, exploiting the natural experiment of the division of Germany, by comparing East (N = 687) to West Berliners (N = 1315), the article studies the long-term impact of state socialisation on PED attitudes. Former West German amateur athletes are a statistically significant 6ppt more likely to believe that athletes can be successful without doping. Former GDR amateur athletes are 8ppt more likely to believe that doping is inevitable in professional sports.


Effects of small incentives on survey response fractions: randomised comparisons in national alcohol surveys conducted in New Zealand

Date

Source

28.05.2016

Kypri, K., Maclennan, B., Connor, J. L.


We experimentally evaluate inexpensive interventions to increase response fractions in two alcohol surveys. Residents on the New Zealand General and Māori electoral rolls were randomized to receive a survey pack with or without an offer of entry to a $500 prize draw. Subsequent randomization of sample members who did not initially respond allowed estimation of effects of offering a $5 donation to charity as an incentive to respond. Offering prize draw entry did not significantly increase responses in either population. Contrary to expectation, promising a $5 donation to non-respondents reduced subsequent responding in the group previously offered the prize draw incentive.


European Public Health News * EUPHA presidents column * EUPHA office column * Message from the WHO Regional Director for Europe * Message from Vytenis Andriukaitis, EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety * 9th European Public Health Conference--'All for Health--Health for All

Date

Source

28.05.2016

Paget, D. Z., McKee, M., Paget, D. Z., Jakab, Z., Andriukait...



Arab-Jewish gap in life expectancy in Israel

Date

Source

28.05.2016

Saabneh, A. M.


Background: Studies about the health status of ethnic minorities in the Middle East are rare. This article examines changes in the life expectancy gap during 1970–2010 between the Arab–Palestinian minority and the Jewish majority in Israel, a persistent gap that has widened over the last 20 years. It examines the gap in a period over which the minority group was undergoing an epidemiological transition and demonstrates consequences of the transition on changes in the main causes of death contributing to the life expectancy gap. Methods: Decomposition methods estimate the contribution of specific age groups and causes of death to the total gap in life expectancy at any given year and changes in these contributions over the studied period. Results: The contribution of mortality differentials at ages <45 years to the Arab–Jewish gap in life expectancy declined while that of differentials at ages >45 has been gradually growing reaching >70% of the total gap. For both males and females, trends in cancer and diabetes mortality differentials contributed to widening the gap among the elderly. Trends in heart mortality lead to increasing the gap among males but to decreasing it among females. Conclusions: While differences in infant and child mortality have declined, old-age (>45) mortality differentials have emerged and have been gradually widening. These findings calls for a special attention to the various factors responsible for the widening mortality gap including social inequality between Arabs and Jews and higher levels of smoking and obesity among the Arab population.


Violent injuries and regional correlates among women in China: results from 21 cities study in China

Date

Source

28.05.2016

Yang, T., Yang, X. Y., Cottrell, R. R., Wu, D., Jiang, S., A...


Background: Ecological models depict violent injuries against women being influenced by both individual and environmental characteristics. However, only few studies examined the association between regional variables and the likelihood of violent injuries. Our study is a preliminary assessment of the impact of regional variables on the likelihood that a woman has experienced violent injuries. Methods: Participants were 16 866 urban residents, who were identified through a multi-stage sampling process conducted in 21 Chinese cities. Out of the sampled population, 8071 respondents were female. Subsequent analyses focused solely on the female sample. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to examine regional variation in violent injuries. Results: Prevalence of violent injuries against women is 10.7% (95% CI: 7.8%, 15.5%). After controlling for individual-level characteristics, higher regional male–female ratio (OR: 1.97, P < 0.05), population growth rate (OR: 4.12, P < 0.01) and unemployment rate (OR: 2.45, P < 0.01) were all associated with an elevated risk of violent injuries among Chinese women caused by physical attack. Conclusions: The results suggest violent injuries among Chinese women caused by physical attack have become an important social and public health problem. The findings point to the importance of developing effective health policies, laws and interventions that focuses on the unequal economic development between different regions.


Austerity and Abortion in the European Union

Date

Source

28.05.2016

Lima, J. M., Reeves, A., Billari, F., McKee, M., Stuckler, D...


Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190–9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors.


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