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Mortality in Italian veterans deployed in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo

Date

Source

15.07.2016

Capocaccia, R., Biselli, R., Ruggeri, R., Tesei, C., Grande,...


Background and Aims: The possible increase of cancer risk in military personnel deployed in Balkans during and after the 1992–1999 wars, mainly related to the depleted uranium, was addressed by several studies on European veterans of those war theatres. This article reports on the results of the mortality study on the Italian cohort of Bosnia and Kosovo veterans (Balkan cohort). Methods: Mortality rates for the Balkan cohort (71 144 persons) were compared with those of the Italian general population as well as to those of a comparable and unselected control cohort of not deployed military personnel (114 269 persons). Ascertainment of vital status during the period 1995–2008 of all the persons in the two cohorts has been carried out through deterministic record linkage with the national death records database, from information provided by the respective Armed Force General Staff, and through the civil registry offices of the veterans’ residence or birth municipalities. Results: The Balkan cohort experienced a mortality rates lower than both the general population (SMR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.51–0.62) and the control group (SMR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.79–0.97). Cancer mortality in the deployed cohort group was half of that from the general population mortality rates (SMR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.40–0.62) and slightly lower if compared with the control group cancer mortality rates (SMR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.77–1.18). Conclusion: Balkan veteran cohort did not show any increase in general mortality or in cancer mortality.


Are migration patterns and mortality related among European regions?

Date

Source

15.07.2016

Tunstall, H. V. Z., Richardson, E. A., Pearce, J. R., Mitche...


Geographical inequalities in mortality across Europe may be influenced by migration between regions. The relationship between age- and sex-standardised death rates, 2008–2010, and population change resulting from migration 2000-2010, was analysed in 250 ‘Nomenclature of Statistical Territorial Units’ (NUTS) level 2 regions in 26 European countries. Across Europe death rates were significantly higher in regions experiencing population loss. This association continued after adjustment for 2005 household income among all regions and Western regions but not among Eastern areas. This analysis suggests migration could contribute to Europe’s persistent inequalities in mortality, and highlights the problems of Eastern regions with the highest death rates, lowest incomes and declining populations.


Private and public modes of bicycle commuting: a perspective on attitude and perception

Date

Source

15.07.2016

Curto, A., de Nazelle, A., Donaire-Gonzalez, D., Cole-Hunter...


Background: Public bicycle-sharing initiatives can act as health enhancement strategies among urban populations. The aim of the study was to determine which attitudes and perceptions of behavioural control toward cycling and a bicycle-sharing system distinguish commuters with a different adherence to bicycle commuting. Methods: The recruitment process was conducted in 40 random points in Barcelona from 2011 to 2012. Subjects completed a telephone-based questionnaire including 27 attitude and perception statements. Based on their most common one-way commute trip and willingness to commute by bicycle, subjects were classified into Private Bicycle (PB), public bicycle or Bicing Bicycle (BB), Willing Non-bicycle (WN) and Non-willing Non-bicycle (NN) commuters. After reducing the survey statements through principal component analysis, a multinomial logistic regression model was obtained to evaluate associations between attitudinal and commuter sub-groups. Results: We included 814 adults in the analysis [51.6% female, mean (SD): age 36.6 (10.3) years]. BB commuters were 2.0 times [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1–3.7] less likely to perceive bicycle as a quick, flexible and enjoyable mode compared to PB. BB, WN and NN were 2.5 (95% CI = 1.46–4.24), 2.6 (95% CI = 1.53–4.41) and 2.3 times (95% CI = 1.30–4.10) more likely to perceive benefits of using public bicycles (bicycle maintenance and parking avoidance, low cost and no worries about theft and vandalism) than did PB. Conclusion: Willing non-bicycle and public-bicycle commuters had more favourable perception toward public-shared bicycles compared to private cyclists. Hence, public bicycles may be the impetus for those willing to start bicycle commuting, thereby increasing physical activity levels.


Association between problematic internet use, socio-demographic variables and obesity among European adolescents

Date

Source

15.07.2016

Tsitsika, A. K., Andrie, E. K., Psaltopoulou, T., Tzavara, C...


Background: Overweight of children and adolescents continues to be an important and alarming global public health problem. As the adolescent’s time spent online has increased, problematic internet use (PIU) potentially leads to negative health consequences. This study aimed to examine the relation between PIU and overweight/obesity among adolescents in seven European countries and assess the effect of demographic and lifestyle factors recorded in the European Network for Adolescent Addictive Behaviour (EU NET ADB) survey (www.eunetadb.eu). Methods: A cross-sectional school-based survey of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries: Germany, Greece, Iceland, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Spain. Anonymous self-completed questionnaires included sociodemographic data, internet usage characteristics, school achievement, parental control and the Internet Addiction Test. Associations between overweight/obesity and potential risk factors were investigated by logistic regression analysis, allowing for the complex sample design. Results: The study sample consisted of 10 287 adolescents aged 14–17 years. 12.4% were overweight/obese, and 14.1% presented with dysfunctional internet behavior. Greece had the highest percentage of overweight/obese adolescents (19.8%) and the Netherlands the lowest (6.8%). Male sex [odds ratio (OR) = 2.89, 95%CI: 2.46–3.38], heavier use of social networking sites (OR = 1.26, 95%CI: 1.09–1.46) and residence in Greece (OR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.79–2.99) or Germany (OR = 1.48, 95%CI: 1.12–1.96) were independently associated with higher risk of overweight/obesity. A greater number of siblings (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.64–0.97), higher school grades (OR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.63–0.88), higher parental education (OR = 0.89, 95%CI: 0.82–0.97) and residence in the Netherlands (OR = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.31–0.77) independently predicted lower risk of overweight/obesity. Conclusions: The results indicate an association of overweight/obesity with PIU and suggest the importance of formulating preventive public health policies that target physical health, education and sedentary online lifestyle early in adolescence with special attention to boys.


Obesity continues to increase in the majority of the population in mid-Sweden--a 12-year follow-up

Date

Source

15.07.2016

Molarius, A., Linden-Boström, M., Granstro&#...


Background: The aim was to investigate trends in the prevalence of obesity by age and level of education in the general population in mid-Sweden from year 2000 to 2012. Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to a random population sample aged 25–74 years in years 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012. The overall response rates were 67%, 65%, 60% and 53%, respectively, and the study included 29 017, 27 385, 25 910 and 24 152 respondents, respectively. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was based on self-reported weight and height. Results: The age-standardized prevalence of obesity increased from 13% to 17% in women and from 12% to 17% in men between 2000 and 2012. Obesity increased in all age groups from 2000 to 2008 and continued to increase among the middle aged (45–64 years) between 2008 and 2012. The socioeconomic gradient in obesity changed during the study period since the absolute increase in obesity was steepest at the middle educational level. In 2012, the prevalence of obesity was almost twice as high at both middle and low educational levels compared with high educational level. The ‘true’ prevalence of adult obesity, corrected for self-reported weight and height, was around 20% in 2012 for both men and women. Conclusion: In the majority, among the middle-aged and those with secondary education, the prevalence of obesity continued to increase even between 2008 and 2012.


European Public Health News * EUPHA Presidents Column * EUPHA Office Column * Message from the WHO Regional Director for Europe * Message from the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety * 9th European Public Health Conference--'All for Health--Health for All

Date

Source

15.07.2016

Paget, D. Z., McKee, M., Andriukaitis, V., Barnhoorn, F.



Prevalence of impaired glucose regulation in Europe: a meta-analysis

Date

Source

15.07.2016

Eades, C. E., France, E. F., Evans, J. M. M.


Background: Impaired glucose regulation represents an opportunity to prevent Type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is important to have a clear understanding of the prevalence of this condition in order to be able to plan interventions and health care provision. This paper presents a meta-analysis of literature assessing the prevalence of impaired glucose regulation in the general population of developed countries in Europe. Methods: Five electronic databases were systematically searched in March 2014 to identify English language articles with general population samples aged 18 and over from developed countries in Europe. Values for the measures of interest were combined using a random effects model and analysis of the effects of moderator variables was carried out. Results: A total of 5594 abstracts were screened, with 46 studies included in the review. Overall prevalence of impaired glucose regulation was 22.3%. Mean prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was 11.4% (10.1–12.8) and did not differ by gender. Sample age, diagnostic criteria and country were found to have a significant univariate effect on prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance but only diagnostic criteria remained significant in multivariate analysis. Mean prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was significantly higher in men at 10.1% (7.9–12.7) compared with 5.9% in women (4–8.7). The only moderator variable with a significant effect on impaired fasting glucose prevalence was country. Conclusions: This meta-analysis shows a moderate prevalence of impaired glucose regulation in developed Europe with over one in five people meeting the criteria for either impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose or both.


The German Energiewende--a matter for health?

Date

Source

15.07.2016

Sutcliffe, R., Orban, E., McDonald, K., Moebus, S.


Background: Germany’s enormous transformation away from nuclear energy and fossil fuels towards a renewable and energy efficient system—called the Energiewende—is playing an essential role in Germany’s economy and policymaking. This article summarises the current knowledge on possible health impacts of the Energiewende and describes the need and opportunities to incorporate health into energy-related policy. Methods: A structural model helped to narrow down specific topics and to conceptualise links between the Energiewende, the environment and health. A comprehensive literature search was conducted within policy documents and scientific databases with English and German language selections. Results: Of 7800 publications first identified only 46 explicitly related energy measures to health, of which 40 were grey literature. Notably, only 12% published by health authorities all others were issued by environmental, energy or consumer protection agencies, ministries or institutions. Conclusion: Our study shows that health impacts of the German Energiewende are rarely explicitly addressed. An integration of a health perspective into energy-related policy is needed including the involvement of public health authorities. A health impact assessment can be a suitable tool to support and evaluate Energiewende-related developments from a health perspective.


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